Hemorrhoids are Swollen Veins in the lowest part of your Rectum and Anus. You have clumps of veins in and around your anus and lower rectum that can stretch with pressure. When they swell or bulge, they’re called hemorrhoids. You can get them inside or just on the edge or on the outside.

Types of Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are classified into 2 major types on the basis of its location. These types are:

  • Internal Hemorrhoids, occurs just inside the anus at the beginning of the rectum.
  • External Hemorrhoids, occurs at the anal opening and may hang outside the anus. 
Internal And External Hemorrhoids

Internal Hemorrhoids are further classified into grades on the basis of severity:

  • Grade 1, no prolapse just prominent blood vessels.
  • Grade 2, prolapse upon bearing down but spontaneous reduction.
  • Grade 3, prolapse upon bearing down and requiring manual reduction.
  • Grade 4, prolapse with inability to be manually reduced.
Grades of Internal Hemorrhoids

Risk factors of Hemorrhoids

Risk factors of Hemorrhoids include:

  • Age.
  • Past History.
  • Past Family History.
  • Prolong Constipation.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Diet.
  • Habit of Not doing Breakfast.
  • Obesity.
  • Increased sphincter tone.
Risk factors of Hemorrhoids

Symptoms of Hemorrhoids

Symptoms of hemorrhoids include:

  • Painless bleeding during bowel movements.
  • Itching or irritation in or at your your anal region.
  • Pain or discomfort.
  • Swelling around your anus.
  • A lump near your anus, which may be sensitive or painful.
  • Burning sensation.
  • Anal region appears red.
Symptoms of Hemorrhoids

Causes of Hemorrhoids

The main cause of hemorrhoids is the Increased pressure in the Rectum or at the anal region due to which the veins of that region swell and some time comes out from the anal region. The causes that increase the pressure are:

  • Straining during bowel movements
  • Sitting for long periods of time on the toilet
  • Chronic diarrhea or constipation
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Anal intercourse
  • Low-fiber diet.
  • Old age.
Causes of Hemorrhoids

Diagnosis of Hemorrhoids

Diagnosis of External Hemorrhoids are done by General Physical Examination. For the diagnosis of Internal Hemorrhoids physician may examine your anal and rectal region through:

  • Digital Examination.
  • visual Inspection. 

Physician may recommend the following tests to find out the underlying causes:

  • Sigmoidoscopy.
  • Anaoscopy.
  • Proctoscopy.
Diagnostic tests for Hemorrhoids